“If you educate a men you educate an individual, however, if you educate a women you educate a whole family. Women empowered means mother India empowered”
The subject of empowerment of women has become a burning issue all over the world including India. Strength of the chain is the strength of its weakest link. In a society, women are the weakest links, so that they may be strengthened for strengthening the society as a whole and that is possible only by empowering them. Presently there has been an increasing awareness of the need to empower women by increasing social, economic and education, employment, inheritance, marriage etc. All over the world education is one of the most significant means for empowering any individual or community in general, and women and girls in particular. Government carried out effectively the social economic status of women so called women empowerment would enhance.
Empowerment is giving power. Power is the keyword of the term empowerment.enpowerment is the multi-dimensional social process that helps people to gain control over their own lives and in their society. By acting on issue that they consider as important, empowerment occurs within sociological, psychological and economic spheres and at various levels such as individuals groups and community and challenges our assumptions about the status quo, asymmetrical power relationship and social dynamics.
Currently if we see in society there is inequalities between men and women and discrimination against women have been age old issue all over the world. Thus, women s quest for quality with men is a universal phenomenon. Empowerment of women, though not a new concept yet is an emerging issue that has gained accelerated momentum in development literature world round. Advancement and empowerment of women has become vital for the consolidation of democracy and the creation of inclusive societies. There has been an increasing awareness of the need to empower women by increasing social, economic and political equity and access to fundamental human rights, improving innutrition, basic health and education, employment, inheritance, marriage and recently in the field of religion also to serve as cleric. Women want have for themselves the same strategies of change which men folk have had over the centuries such as equal pay for equal work. Women want to have some association for improving emir and socially
The impact of the patriarchal structure can be seen in rural and urban India although women empowerment in rural India is much less visible than in urban areas. This is of particular concern, science much of India is rural despite the high rate of urbanization and expansion of cities. Rural women, as opposed to women in urban setting, face inequality at much higher rates, and in all spheres of life. Urban women and in particular, urban educated women enjoy relatively higher access to economic opportunities, health and education and experience less domestic violence. Women who have some level of education have higher decision making power in the house hold and the community. Furthermore, the level of women’s education also has a direct implication on mortality rate and nutrition and health indication among children.
The global gender gap report by the world economic forum in 2009 ranked India 114th out of 134 countries for inequality b/w men and women in the economy, politics, health and education. On equality economic opportunities and women’s participation in the labour force, India ranked 127 tie and 122nd respectively. The number of women in the workforce varies greatly from state to state: 21% in Delhi 23% in Punjab 65% in Manipur 71% Chhattisgarh 76% in Arunachala Pradesh. The diversity of women economics opportunities b/w states is due to the culture, religious and ethnic diversity of each state. Northern states like Delhi and Punjab lag far behind on gender equality measure, including the alarming sex ratio b/w men and women. Low female literacy levels, and high rates of gender –based violence.
Polices relation to women rights have had a positive trajectory In the past few decades with the central government articulating many progressive measure to advance gender equality in social , economic ,and political arenas . The government of India has two main bodies to advance gender equality: the ministry of women and child development and the national commission for women. Which is an autonomous organization under the ministry of women and child development. Both bodies work on national and state level legal and social policies to advance gender equality. The ministry has widely implemented local level micro –finance schemes to advance economic opportunities for rural women. The national commission for women has been instrument in creating legislative change, and has set up complaint and investigate cells at the state level. The grievance complaints of gender- based violence and are mandated to investigate, provide referrals and counselling and ultimately report on such cases.
Bring omen into the mainstream of development has thus been major concern of the government since independence. In order to empower and bring them into the mainstream, an enabling environment with requisite policies and programmers. Institution mechanisms at various levels and adequate financial resource has all along been tried to be created. the ministry of rural area and employment has special components for women in all its program and certain amount of fund is car marked as women’s component to ensure a flow of adequate resource for women’
Finding of women empowerment:
- As women: women constitute 70 % of world’s poor population or almost 900 million of the 1.3c billion people who live in absolute poverty. Two third of the worlds illiterate population of 876 million people are women. They produce 50 % of the food worldwide but receive only 10% of the income.
- Earnings: women’s average earnings are consistently lower than those of men but in the unorganized sector, which account for 94% of economically active women, earning are even lower.
- Health: in terms of food intake, women suffer greater deprivation intra familiarly. a very systematic sex bias is also reflected in higher national among girls via- a vis boys
- Education of the 960 million illiterate person in the world, 640 million are women. In 2001, the literacy rate of women has increased to 54.16 still it is lower than male literacy rate. School enrolment figures for girls have been – and continue to be lower than for boys at all stages and ages, and the dropout rates also higher for girls at every stages primary to higher school.
- Politics: political space has been monopolized by men. representation of women among member of parliament and state legislations has never exceeded 7 % and has remained around 5% over the years despite the increasing visibility of women women representation at the higher rungs of the decision – making position has also been consistently low.
- Socio – culture factor: the culture construct of son preference adds to the psychological diffidence of the female child , dowry deaths , violence against women has its roots in the subordination of women at the social level and their vulnerability has not decreased but increased in developing economic as a consequence of social disruptions backslash and a general degeneration value act.
Indicators of empowerment:
At the level of the individual women and her household ‘
- Participation in crucial decision – making processes.
- Extend of sharing of domestic work by men
- Extend to which a women takes controls of her reproductive functions and decides on family size.
- Extend to which a women is able to decide where the income she has ear ned will be channelled to
- Feeling and expression of pride and value in her work
- Self-confidence and self-esteem and ability to prevent violence
At the community
- Existence of women organisations
- Allocation of funds to women and women’s projects
- Increased number of women leaders at village, district, provincial, and national level.
- Involvement of women in the design, development and application of technology.
- Participation in community pro grammars, productive enterprises, polities and arts.
- Involvements of women in non – traditional tasks
- Increased training programme for women
- Excising her legal right when necessary
At national level
1’ awareness of her social and polices rights
Integration of women in the general national development plan
Existence of women network and publication
Extend to which women are officially visible and recognized
The degree to which the media take heed of women’s issues.
- Opening of sufficient number of kanyashrams the residential schools to check drop out.
- Awareness of daughter education is essential. It is said that “educated mother educate family which results in educated population of a nation which builds strong nation.
- Encourage and ensure socio – economic participation of women in local and international forums
- Encourage participation of women in income generation activities. Proper implementation of schemes provided by the government should be done by respective agencies.
- Removal of gender inequality.
- Introduction satellite for remote hamlets.
- Appointment of locality available education youths especially females or teacher.
- Teaching in mother toung in district during early years of schooling and then introducing the record language in class 6th or 5th/
- Improved methods of teaching trough audio – visual methods, using science kits , providing concrete example
- Strengthening of integrated child development scheme programmers.
- It is important to undertake campaign and lobby activities that will put the issue of gender in the minds of the legislators, policy makers and the larger public.
- Awareness on government welfare programmes motivation technical skill and support from family government and other organization
In last five decades, the concept of women empower has undergone a major change from welfare oriented approach to equity approach. Empowerment as powerfully articulated goals of development interventions has significant in recent years. While the status of women has advanced in some important aspects in the past decades, progress has been uneven and still inequalities b/w men and women have persisted. The new strategies and initiatives must include various tools of social empowerment of women such as right and access to education heath care, adeequent nutrition right of property and access to equal opportunities. . Necessary to supplement government efforts by non- government organization for facilitating women empowerment. Yet India has not achieved the expected goals, hence comprehensive programme for empowering women is still demanding.