EDUCATION AND WOMEN EMPOWERMENT

EDUCATION AND WOMEN EMPOWERMENT

 

 

 

Abstract

“If you educate a men you educate an individual, however, if you educate a women you educate a whole family. Women empowered means mother India empowered”-“Nehru”.     The subject of empowerment of women has become a burning issue all over the world including India. Strength of the chain is the strength of its weakest link. In a society, women are the weakest links, so that they may be strengthened for strengthening the society as a whole and that is possible only by empowering them. Presently there has been an increasing awareness of the need to empower women by increasing social, economic and education, employment, inheritance, marriage etc. All over the world education is one of the most significant means for empowering any individual or community in general, women and girls in particular. Government carried out various schemes to enhance the status of women. This paper focuses on enrolment of boys and girls and their percentage population at their respective ages in primary, middle and higher secondary classes at school, college level.  The number of women teachers to hundred men teachers at various level of classes and the percentage of women in central cabinet ministers were considered. It was clear that their representation is to be improved for the welfare of the family and society at large.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EDUCATION AND WOMEN EMPOWERMENT

 

  1. Introduction

Empowerment is giving power. Power is the keyword of the term empowerment. Empowerment is the multi-dimensional social process that helps people to gain control over their own lives and in their society. By acting on issue that they consider as important, empowerment occurs within sociological, psychological and economic spheres and at various levels such as individuals groups and community and challenges our assumptions about the status quo, asymmetrical power relationship and social dynamics.

Currently there are inequalities in society between men and women and discrimination against women has been noticed. Thus request of women for equality with men is a universal phenomenon. Empowerment of women, though not a new concept yet is an emerging issue that has gained accelerated momentum in development literature. Advancement and empowerment of women has become vital for the consolidation of democracy and the creation of inclusive societies. There has been an increasing awareness of the need to empower women by increasing social, economic and political equity and access to fundamental human rights, improving in nutrition, basic health and education, employment, inheritance, marriage and recently in the field of religion.

Women want to have for themselves the same strategies of change which men folk have had over the centuries such as equal pay for equal work. Women want to have some association for improving socially. Bringing women into the mainstream of development has thus been major concern of the government. In order to empower and bring them into the mainstream, an enabling environment with requisite policies and programs are essential. Institutional mechanisms at various levels and adequate financial resource have to be created. The ministry of rural area and employment has special components for women in its program and certain amount of fund is earmarked as women’s component to ensure a flow of adequate resource for women. Government has made free education to all under the age of fourteen years through Sarva Shikshana Abhiyaan. Education is one of the most significant means for empowering any individual or women and girls in particular. In this backdrop the paper focuses on Education and empowerment of women.

  1. Methodology

            The study is based on secondary data. The data related to education is obtained from ministry of statistics government of India. The variables selected are Gross Enrolment Ratio at different stages in school education, their drop-out rate, number of female teachers per hundred male teachers, number of females per hundred males in college education, workforce participation in rural and urban areas and representation at central council of ministers.

 

  1. Results and Findings

Primary education is the initial stage in education the data on gross enrolment ratio at primary classes has been considered. To understand whether the same status is continued further, enrolment ratio for middle classes and higher secondary classes were taken from 2006-07 to 2013-14 and shown in Table-1.

 

Table-1: Gross Enrolment Ratio in Different Stages of Education as Percentage of Population                 in the Appropriate Age groups

Year Primary classes Middle classes Higher secondary classes
Female Male Total Female Male Total Female Male Total
2006-07 108.00 114.60 111.40 69.60 77.41 73.80 36.80 45.00 41.10
2007-08 112.60 115.30 114.00 74.40 81.50 78.10 41.90 49.40 45.81
2008-09 114.00 114.70 114.30 76.60 82.70 79.80 43.50 51.00 47.40
2009-10 113.80 113.80 113.80 79.00 84.30 81.70 46.10 52.50 49.40
2011-12 107.10 105.80 106.50 81.40 82.50 82.00 97.60 97.20 97.40
2012-13 102.20 99.30 100.70 86.90 82.30 84.50 96.60 93.10 94.80
2013-14 100.60 98.10 99.30 90.30 84.90 87.40 96.90 93.30 95.00

 

Gross Enrolment ratio in Primary classes as percentage of population in respective age groups is low for females in the initial two years 2006 and 2007 and is equal for the next two years and crosses the male ratio from 2011 onwards. In the middle class and Higher secondary class female enrolment ratio is lower initially and increases from 2012 onwards. One can observe that total enrolment is higher for primary and gradually decreases for Middle and higher secondary in both male and female group. The female literacy levels according to the Literacy Rate from 2011 census are 65.46 percent whereas the male literacy rate is over 80 percent.

In order to measure the dropout rate of students from school education at various stages of education the data was collected and tabulated as shown in Table-2. It could be inferred that the drop- out rate of females is lower to that of males for all the classes during all years barring one or two exceptional cases. With the effort and c of the government the drop-out rate is decreasing among males as well as females.

Table-2: Drop-out Rate at Different Stages of School Education

Year Primary classes Middle classes Higher secondary classes
Female Male Female Male Female Male
2007-08 24.41 25.70 41.34 41.10 57.33 56.55
2008-09 25.80 29.60 36.90 41.10 54.40 54.00
2009-10 28.50 31.80 44.20 41.10 51.80 53.30
2010-11 25.40 29.00 41.20 40.60 47.70 50.20
2011-12 21.00 23.40 40.00 41.50 52.20 48.60
2012-13 19.30 23.00 35.70 41.80 50.30 50.40
2013-14 18.30 21.20 32.90 39.20 46.70 48.10

 

Next it was thought of testing the proportion of females to males in college education particularly in the discipline of Arts, Commerce, Science, Engineering and Medical courses. Number of females to 100 males in various courses were recorded and shown in Table-3. Among Technical courses, medical has highest number of females and lowest is found in Engineering course. Among other courses Arts has the largest representation and commerce being the smallest. This shows that still there is scope for improvement in female enrolment higher Education. Acquiring education in various disciplines women can compete in job market and can avail different jobs, earn income and become independent to support the family and society at large with their service.

Table-3: Number of Females per 100 Males in University Education in Major Disciplines

Year Arts Science Commerce Engineering Medical
2005-06 77.70 71.20 65.20 36.1 90.1
2006-07 76.90 71.20 60.90 35.8 89.5
2007-08 79.60 71.00 63.53 39.3 79.66
2008-09 86.80 66.90 65.30 39.7 88.31
2009-10 86.00 72.70 67.30 40.3 90.90

 

Data on Number of female teachers to 100 male teachers at various levels of school education was considered and displayed in the Table-4. It was noticed that majority of women teachers were found in Primary classes which was followed by Middle classes and finally by Higher secondary classes. This shows that the natural quality of patience among women has been recognised to teach students of lower classes. Women are serving in various levels of teaching only with the educational qualification that could give them livelihood and satisfaction and empower them economically.

Table-4: Number of Female Teachers per 100 Male Teachers at Different Levels of Education

Year Primary classes Middle classes Higher secondary classes
2007-08 80 67 61
2008-09 73 71 60
2009-10 84 75 63
2010-11 76 80 61
2011-12 79 76 66
2012-13 87 80 69
2013-14 88 83 74

 

After considering the number of female teachers per hundred male teachers, it was interesting to know the representation of women in the Central Council of Ministers. Data on number of ministers in Cabinet and State and also the number of women Ministers were obtained. The percentage of women in Central Council were calculated and shown in the Table-5. It could be noticed that men are fond of administration and they are power mongers. They occupy more than 80 percent of the ministerial positions. It can be seen that percentage of women   in central council ranges between 8 percent to 18 percent. Awareness about the society, making decisions of the State and Central affairs etc could be obtained only by occupying the administrative positions. This leads to empowerment of women not only in the ministerial position but also extends in the welfare of women and the society.   Even though there is 33 percent of women reservation still that ratio is not filled and will not be allowed to go for it.

Table-5: Representation of Women in the Central Council of Ministers

Year Numbers of minister Numbers of women minister % women in central council
Cabinet minister Minister in state Cabinet minister Minister in state
2010 40 38 1 5 8.0
2011 32 44 2 6 10.5
2012 31 43 2 6 10.8
2013 31 47 3 9 15.4
2014 23 22 6 1 15.6
2015 23 22 6 2 17.8
2016 26 49 5 4 12.0

 

  1. Conclusion

            Educating women means educating the entire family. If women are economically empowered they can support the family. She will be able to participate in decision making at family as well as in the society. Appointed at various public and private jobs by them can assure them better standard of living of their family , make economically empowered and inculcate courage to take right decisions and create equal status as men in the society. Hence Education is the basic requirement for women for their betterment, for the welfare of the entire family and society at large.

Marutesh
Marutesh

Hello. I am Marutesh, I stay in Bangalore . I have completed MA in economics in DAVANGERE UNIVERSITY. My father is an ex-service man and mother is Home maker. I am honorary teaching yoga and also I am taking classes for Government institution .if my impact need i do my father business. Additional qualification :diploma in computer application ,diploma in health inspector , yoga instructors course.

Leave a Reply

Show Buttons
Hide Buttons
%d bloggers like this: